Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
- An aneurysm is an enlarged portion of a weak area of an artery. Over time, blood flow can cause the weak area to bulge like a balloon.
- An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs in the abdominal section of the aorta, the main blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. A normal aorta is approximately one inch or less in diameter, while an aneurysm can grow to be more than five inches in diameter. The pressure of blood flowing through the artery can cause the weakened area to enlarge like a balloon.
- Larger aneurysms are more likely to burst than smaller ones, resulting in internal bleeding that is fatal unless treated immediately by an experienced emergency medical team. Because aneurysms can burst or rupture, they are considered a serious health condition.
- The risk for complications increases with the size of the aneurysm. In general, abdominal aortic aneurysms that are slightly larger than 2 inches (about 5.5 cm) in diameter should be considered for treatment. Smaller aneurysms should be monitored carefully for any enlargement.
- Aneurysms can burst or rupture, leading to serious internal bleeding and, if not treated, death.
- More than 15,000 people die of AAA ruptures in the United States each year. Only about half of patients with a ruptured AAA who get to a hospital survive.
- Aneurysms can also unleash potentially life-threatening blood clots.
Most people with AAA do not feel any symptoms. Others may experience one or more of the following symptoms:
- A rhythmic, pulsating feeling in the abdomen, similar to a heartbeat
- Deep pain in the abdomen or lower back
- Severe, sudden abdominal or back pain that may indicate imminent rupture.
Causes & Risk Factors
The cause of AAA is unclear. Some researchers believe that it may be associated with atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), while others believe that the same risk factors that contribute to atherosclerosis (including high blood pressure and smoking) may make the aorta more vulnerable to aneurysms.
High-risk populations include:
- Men, 60 years of age and older
- Relatives of patients with aneurysms
- People with high blood pressure
- People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- People with vascular diseases.
Aneurysms can also be genetic, and in rare cases, can be caused by trauma, connective tissue disease, or bacterial or fungal infections.
Physicians can only detect about 10 percent of abdominal aortic aneurysms during a physical examination. Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are diagnosed during an abdominal imaging test—in fact, most aneurysms are discovered when an imaging test is conducted for an unrelated reason.
Tests used to detect an aortic aneurysm may include:
- Abdominal Ultrasonography (Ultrasound)—This is the most common test used to diagnose aneurysms. It takes approximately 30 minutes, is widely available, and can detect most aneurysms.
- Computed Tomography (CT) Scans
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Aneurysms that are smaller than two inches in diameter and do not cause symptoms, may be monitored regularly (approximately every six months) using an ultrasound or CT scan. This practice is called ‘watchful waiting.’ People with small aneurysms and high blood pressure may be given medication to lower their blood pressure, which may help to reduce the risk of the aneurysm growing or rupturing.
Additional, more invasive treatment options include:
- Open Aneurysm Repair—Surgical repair may be recommended for patients that have symptom-causing aneurysms, or in cases that aneurysms are larger than two inches in diameter. This operation involves opening the abdomen and replacing the weakened area of the aorta with a fabric tube. This inpatient procedure typically requires a hospital stay of 5 – 10 days, and can take up to two or three months for recovery.
- Endovascular Stent Graft Repair—A minimally invasive procedure, endovascular stent graft repair allows a physician to implant a synthetic tube (stent graft or endograft) supported by metal into the aorta. The tube is threaded into the aorta using a catheter inserted through a small incision in the groin. The stent graft allows blood to flow through the aorta without putting pressure on the damaged wall of the aneurysm. Following the placement of an endovascular stent graft, the aneurysm may eventually shrink over time.
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Medical Review Date: August 23, 2005 / Copyright © 2012 NorthPoint Domain, Inc. All rights reserved. This material cannot be reproduced in digital or printed form without the express consent of NorthPoint Domain, Inc. Unauthorized copying or distribution of NorthPoint Domain’s Content is an infringement of the copyright holder’s rights.